General George Washington rode from our second assembled Congress in Philadelphia to Boston, arriving on the 2d of July, 1775. A mere four weeks later, at General Washington’s urging, the Congress would elect William Tudor - and General Washington would thereupon appoint - our first Judge Advocate General.
Lieutenant Colonel William Tudor was truly an “Army of One.” Our first Judge Advocate General was paid a handsome $20 a month as he traversed the disparate units and supervised the innumerable courts-martial. Indeed, on the very page of General Orders announcing his appointment is an Order publishing news of the acquittal of a Soldier for “stealing a common cartridge of powder.” Tudor would become a terribly busy, and vocal, judge advocate attending to these trials. The urgency of Washington’s request for a Judge Advocate, after only four weeks in command, is a testament that from the earliest days of our Army the role of the Army Lawyer was central to the proper functioning of the Army.
As the oldest law firm in our Nation, uniformed lawyers continue to play an increasingly important role in our Army’s history. This collection of articles about military legal history will, therefore, interest not only members of The Judge Advocate General’s Corps, but also anyone who wants to better understand the role played by the law and judge advocates in our Army.
Each of the more than eighty “Lore of the Corps” articles in this compilation originally appeared in The Army Lawyer, a monthly journal published by The Judge Advocate General’s Legal Center and School, Charlottesville, Virginia. The articles are wide ranging, touching not only distant ‘institutional memories’ and events, like the terrible massacre of American prisoners at Malmedy in 1944 and high-profile murder trials in the Philippines and Vietnam, but these articles also illuminate the lives of important legal leaders, like Major Generals Enoch Crowder and Allen Gullion, who served as Judge Advocates General in the first half of the twentieth century. There also are narratives about judge advocates who served in Ethiopia and Iran in the 1960s and 1970s, as well as articles about the development of our distinctive branch insignia (the crossed quill-and-sword) in the 1890s and the emergence of our Regimental crest in the 1980s.
The history of our Corps is as rich and exciting as that of our Army. This book is an essential tool for Soldiers and civilians – within and without the Army – to appreciate the role of law, the rule of law, and the imperative to understand our past in order to better understand the present and the future.
Charles N. Pede
Lieutenant General, U.S. Army
The Judge Advocate General
Abbott, Staff Sgt. Margarita G.: 166
Abrams, Gen. Creighton: 6
Adams, Col. Paul D.: 219
Administrative and Civil Law: 50, 54, 58, 60, 61, 63, 100, 114, 147, 177, 192. See also: The Judge Advocate General’s Legal Center and School, Courses and Curriculum.
Advanced Course. See: The Judge Advocate General’s Legal Center and School.
Advocate, The. See The Advocate.
Airborne training: 124, 163, 165
Aircraft. Generally: 63, 96, 117, 129, 149-150, 173, 185, 197, 305-07
Bell P-39 Airacobra:305
Bell UH-1H “Huey”:145
Curtis C-46 Commando: 305
Lockheed F-5E Lightning:305
Lockheed P-38 Lightning:305
Air Force. See: United States Air Force.
Alcala, Ronald P.: 73.
Allen, Lt. Col. Nicholas “Nick” E.: 122-24
Alley, Brig. Gen. Wayne E.: 143, 169, 332-34
Almond, Maj. Gen. Edward “Ned”: 109
American Bar Association (ABA): 23, 59-61, 66-7, 72, 74, 97,
American Legion: 111, 222
Anderson, Maj. Dr. J. B.: 272
Andrews, Marian: 273
Annan, UN Secretary General Kofi: 152
Annual Report and Annual Bulletin: 61, 63, 78, 167
Ansell, Brig. Gen. Samuel T.: 89, 275, 312. See also: Appellate Courts; Judge Advocate General
Anti-Deficiency Act: 68-9
Appellate Courts, Military
Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces (CAAF):312-313
Army Court of Criminal Appeals (ACCA):5, 8, 256
Court of Military Review, Air Force (AFCMR):314
Court of Military Review, Army (ACMR:4, 112, 275, 325-26. See also:Sneeden, Brig. Gen. Emory M.:112-13
United States Court of Military Appeals (COMA):312-13
Brosman, Paul W.:312
Latimer, George W.:312
Quinn, Robert E.:312
Standard for Review:312
Terms of Judicial Appointees:312
Arce, Jose Antonio: 217-18
Arce v. State: 217-18
Armed Services Board of Contract Appeals: 225, 227
Armistice Agreement: 134-35
Army. See United States Army.
Army Lawyer. See: The Army Lawyer.
Army Regulations. See United States Army, Regulations.
Army Times: 36
Arnold, Gen. Henry A. “Hap”: 286, 343 n. 178
Arthur, President Chester: 83
Article I Courts. See: Courts-Martial.
Article III Courts. See: Courts, Article III
Articles of War: 292, 247, 265. See also: Uniform Code of Military Justice
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Ash Lawn: 158
Assistant Judge Advocate General, U.S. Army. See: Deputy Judge Advocate General.
Attaya, Maj. Mary L.: 62. See also: The Judge Advocate General’s Legal Center and School (TJAGLCS)
Auerbach, Col. Ernest: 30
Australia, Judge Advocates in: 96
Autry, Gene: 254
Avakian, Lt. Leon S. Jr.: 298
Awards, Decorations, and Insignia
(Belgium) Fourragere 1940:123
Bronze Star Medal:105, 109, 114, 115, 120, 123, 128, 133, 138, 145-46, 240
(China) Special Breast Order of Pao Ting:126, 129
(China) Special Breast Order of the Cloud and Banner:126, 129
(China) Special Collar of the Order of Brilliant Star:126, 129
Distinguished Service Cross:138, 142
Distinguished Service Medal:20-22, 89, 91, 96, 130, 247-48, 341 n. 154
(France) Croix de Guerre:240, 284
Insignia:10, 12-13, 27, 32, 167
(Italy) Cross of Valor:240
Korean Service Medal:107
Legion of Merit:107, 116, 121, 130, 138, 165
Meritorious Service Medal:170
Netherlands (Military Order of William):123
Purple Heart:115, 138
Regimental Distinctive Insignia:13, 36-37, 157
Silver Star:78 n. 71, 95, 137-38, 145, 322, 341 n. 154
United Nations Service Medal:107
Babbitt, Brig. Gen. Bruce C.: 29-31, 44, 61
Babbitt, Betty: 29
Bacon, Gaspar G.: 15-16
Bailey, Col. Joseph L.: 325
Baker, Col. John: 4
Baker, Col. John “Jeb”: 4
Baldwin, Sen. Raymond: 214
Ballad of the SJA: 27
Ballistic Missile Defense Office: 157
Bard, Col. Robert: 294
Barlow, Col. Keith: 192
Barnes, Maj. Holman J.: 203
Barr, Brig. Gen. Thomas F.: 85-6, 247. See also: Judge Advocate General
Basic Course. See: Judge Advocate General’s Legal Center and School
Bastille Day: 215
Battlefield promotion: 123-24
Bauer, Frederick Gilbert: 18
Bayne, Hugh: 15, 21
Becker, 1st Lt. Ralph E.: 53
Bednar, Brig. Gen. Richard: 8
Bennett, William J.: 67
Bering Sea Controversy: 20
Berquist, Cpt. John A.: 219-220
Bethel, Maj. Gen. Walter A.: 12-14, 91. See also: Judge Advocate General
Billings (Montana) Gazette (newspaper): 322
Bird, Lt. Col. William A.: 234-36
Bitter Victory: The Battle for Sicily 1943: 221
Bissell, Capt. Daniel: 245
“Black” Jobs. See: Judge Advocate General, Office of The, Personnel, Plans and Training Office
Black, Col. Richard: 327
Bleuse, Yvette: 317-19
Board of Claims: 87
Bolling, Maj. Gen. Alexander R. “Bud”: 245-46
Bongers, Lt. Col. Donald F.: 329-31
Borch, Lt. Col. Fred L.: 329
Boston Daily Globe (newspaper): 288
Boy Scouts of America: 114
Bozeman, Col. John: 145
Bradley, Gen. Omar N.: 221
Bradley Commission: 106
Brady, Lt. Col. Stephen J.: 221
Branch Insignia. See Awards, Decorations and Insignia.
Brannen, Col. Barney L.: 30, 245
Brannon, Maj. Gen. Ernest M. “Mike”: 7, 53, 54, 57, 63, 109-111, 121, 224, 237. See also: Judge Advocate General
Brennan, Pvt. Patrick F.: 320-21
Brooke, Brig. Gen. John R.: 87
Brosman, Paul W: 312-13