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Foreword

 

 

General George Washington rode from our second assembled Congress in Philadelphia to Boston, arriving on the 2d of July, 1775.  A mere four weeks later, at General Washington’s urging, the Congress would elect William Tudor - and General Washington would thereupon appoint - our first Judge Advocate General. 

 

Lieutenant Colonel William Tudor was truly an “Army of One.”  Our first Judge Advocate General was paid a handsome $20 a month as he traversed the disparate units and supervised the innumerable courts-martial.  Indeed, on the very page of General Orders announcing his appointment is an Order publishing news of the acquittal of a Soldier for “stealing a common cartridge of powder.”  Tudor would become a terribly busy, and vocal, judge advocate attending to these trials.  The urgency of Washington’s request for a Judge Advocate, after only four weeks in command, is a testament that from the earliest days of our Army the role of the Army Lawyer was central to the proper functioning of the Army.

 

As the oldest law firm in our Nation, uniformed lawyers continue to play an increasingly important role in our Army’s history.  This collection of articles about military legal history will, therefore, interest not only members of The Judge Advocate General’s Corps, but also anyone who wants to better understand the role played by the law and judge advocates in our Army.

 

Each of the more than eighty “Lore of the Corps” articles in this compilation originally appeared in The Army Lawyer, a monthly journal published by The Judge Advocate General’s Legal Center and School, Charlottesville, Virginia.  The articles are wide ranging, touching not only distant ‘institutional memories’ and events, like the terrible massacre of American prisoners at Malmedy in 1944 and high-profile murder trials in the Philippines and Vietnam, but these articles also illuminate the lives of important legal leaders, like Major Generals Enoch Crowder and Allen Gullion, who served as Judge Advocates General in the first half of the twentieth century.  There also are narratives about judge advocates who served in Ethiopia and Iran in the 1960s and 1970s, as well as articles about the development of our distinctive branch insignia (the crossed quill-and-sword) in the 1890s and the emergence of our Regimental crest in the 1980s.

 

The history of our Corps is as rich and exciting as that of our Army.  This book is an essential tool for Soldiers and civilians – within and without the Army – to appreciate the role of law, the rule of law, and the imperative to understand our past in order to better understand the present and the future.

 

 

1775!

 

 

            Charles N. Pede

            Lieutenant General, U.S. Army

            The Judge Advocate General

 

INDEX

 

 

A

Abbott, Staff Sgt. Margarita G.:  166

Abrams, Gen. Creighton:  6

Adams, Col. Paul D.:  219

Administrative and Civil Law: 50, 54, 58, 60, 61, 63, 100, 114, 147, 177, 192. See also:  The Judge Advocate General’s Legal Center and School, Courses and Curriculum.

Advanced Course.  See:  The Judge Advocate General’s Legal Center and School.

Advocate, The. See The Advocate.

Aide-de-Camp:  120

Airborne training:  124, 163, 165

 

Aircraft.  Generally:  63, 96, 117, 129, 149-150, 173, 185, 197, 305-07

  • Bell P-39 Airacobra:305

  • Bell UH-1H “Huey”:145

  • Curtis C-46 Commando: 305

  • Lockheed F-5E Lightning:305

  • Lockheed P-38 Lightning:305

    Air Force.  See:  United States Air Force.

    Alcala, Ronald P.:  73.

    Allen, Lt. Col. Nicholas “Nick” E.:  122-24

    Alley, Brig. Gen. Wayne E.:  143, 169, 332-34

    Almond, Maj. Gen. Edward “Ned”:  109

    American Bar Association (ABA):  23, 59-61, 66-7, 72, 74, 97,

     

    American Legion:  111, 222

    Anderson, Maj. Dr. J. B.:  272

    Andrews, Marian:  273

    Annan, UN Secretary General Kofi:  152

    Annual Report and Annual Bulletin:  61, 63, 78, 167

     

    Ansell, Brig. Gen. Samuel T.:  89, 275, 312. See also: Appellate Courts; Judge Advocate General

    Anti-Deficiency Act:  68-9

    Appellate Courts, Military

  • Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces (CAAF):312-313

  • Army Court of Criminal Appeals (ACCA):5, 8, 256

  • Court of Military Review, Air Force (AFCMR):314

  • Court of Military Review, Army (ACMR:4, 112, 275, 325-26. See also:Sneeden, Brig. Gen. Emory M.:112-13

  • United States Court of Military Appeals (COMA):312-13

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    Brosman, Paul W.:312

  • Latimer, George W.:312

  • Quinn, Robert E.:312

  • Standard for Review:312

  • Terms of Judicial Appointees:312

     

    Arce, Jose Antonio:  217-18

    Arce v. State:  217-18

    Armed Services Board of Contract Appeals:  225, 227

     

    Armistice Agreement:  134-35

    Army. See United States Army.

    Army Lawyer.  See:  The Army Lawyer.

    Army Regulations. See United States Army, Regulations.

    Army Times:  36

    Arnold, Gen. Henry A. “Hap”:  286, 343 n. 178

    Arthur, President Chester:  83

    Article I Courts.  See:  Courts-Martial.

    Article III Courts.  See:  Courts, Article III

    Articles of War:  292, 247, 265.  See also:  Uniform Code of Military Justice

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    1916:275, 279-83

  • 1920:234-36, 288-294

     

    Ash Lawn:  158

    Assistant Judge Advocate General, U.S. Army.  See:  Deputy Judge Advocate General.

    Attaya, Maj. Mary L.:  62.  See also:  The Judge Advocate General’s Legal Center and School (TJAGLCS)

    Auerbach, Col. Ernest:  30

    Australia, Judge Advocates in:  96

    Autry, Gene:  254

    Avakian, Lt. Leon S. Jr.:  298

     

    Awards, Decorations, and Insignia

  • (Belgium) Fourragere 1940:123

  • Bronze Star Medal:105, 109, 114, 115, 120, 123, 128, 133, 138, 145-46, 240

  • (China) Special Breast Order of Pao Ting:126, 129

  • (China) Special Breast Order of the Cloud and Banner:126, 129

  • (China) Special Collar of the Order of Brilliant Star:126, 129

  • Distinguished Service Cross:138, 142

  • Distinguished Service Medal:20-22, 89, 91, 96, 130, 247-48, 341 n. 154

  • (France) Croix de Guerre:240, 284

  • Insignia:10, 12-13, 27, 32, 167

  • (Italy) Cross of Valor:240

  • Korean Service Medal:107

  • Legion of Merit:107, 116, 121, 130, 138, 165

  • Meritorious Service Medal:170

  • Netherlands (Military Order of William):123

  • Parachutist Badge:117

  • Purple Heart:115, 138

  • Regimental Distinctive Insignia:13, 36-37, 157

  • Silver Star:78 n. 71, 95, 137-38, 145, 322, 341 n. 154

  • United Nations Service Medal:107

 

B

Babbitt, Brig. Gen. Bruce C.:  29-31, 44, 61

Babbitt, Betty:  29

Bacon, Gaspar G.:  15-16

Bailey, Col. Joseph L.:  325

Baker, Col. John:  4

 

Baker, Col. John “Jeb”:  4

Baldwin, Sen. Raymond:  214

Ballad of the SJA:  27

Ballistic Missile Defense Office:  157

Bard, Col. Robert:  294

Barlow, Col. Keith:  192

 

Barnes, Maj. Holman J.:  203

Barr, Brig. Gen. Thomas F.:  85-6, 247.  See also:  Judge Advocate General

Basic Course.  See: Judge Advocate General’s Legal Center and School

Bastille Day:  215

Battlefield promotion:  123-24

Bauer, Frederick Gilbert:  18

Bayne, Hugh:  15, 21

Becker, 1st Lt. Ralph E.:  53

Bednar, Brig. Gen. Richard:  8

 

Bennett, William J.:  67

Bering Sea Controversy: 20

Berquist, Cpt. John A.:  219-220

Bethel, Maj. Gen. Walter A.:  12-14, 91.  See also:  Judge Advocate General

Billings (Montana) Gazette (newspaper):  322

Bird, Lt. Col. William A.:  234-36

 

Bitter Victory: The Battle for Sicily 1943:  221

Bissell, Capt. Daniel:  245

“Black” Jobs. See:  Judge Advocate General, Office of The, Personnel, Plans and Training Office

Black, Col. Richard:  327

Bleuse, Yvette:  317-19

Board of Claims:  87

Bolling, Maj. Gen. Alexander R. “Bud”:  245-46

Bongers, Lt. Col. Donald F.:  329-31 

Borch, Lt. Col. Fred L.:  329

Boston Daily Globe (newspaper):  288 

Boy Scouts of America:  114

Bozeman, Col. John:  145

Bradley, Gen. Omar N.:  221

 

Bradley Commission:  106

Brady, Lt. Col. Stephen J.:  221

Brainwashing:  295

Branch Insignia. See Awards, Decorations and Insignia. 

Brannen, Col. Barney L.:  30, 245

 

Brannon, Maj. Gen. Ernest M. “Mike”:  7, 53, 54, 57, 63, 109-111, 121, 224, 237.  See also:  Judge Advocate General

Brennan, Pvt. Patrick F.:   320-21 

Brooke, Brig. Gen. John R.:  87

Brosman, Paul W:  312-13